Archive for the ‘Architecture’ Category

ENVI-met, Microscale Urban Microclimate Simulation Model

September 16th, 2011 No comments

ENVI-met is a three-dimensional computer model which analyzes micro-scale thermal interactions within urban environments. It is one of the first models that seek to reproduce the major processes in the atmosphere that affect the microclimate, including the simulation of wind flows, turbulence, radiation fluxes, temperature and humidity, on a well-founded physical basis (i.e. the fundamental laws of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics). The software uses both the calculation of fluid dynamics characteristics, such as air flow and turbulence, as well as the thermodynamic processes taking place at the ground surface, at walls, at roofs and at plants.

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How to Measure Leaf Area Density

September 16th, 2011 No comments

Leaf Area Index (LAI) is the ratio of the foliage area to the ground area. The measurement of LAI is of fundamental importance in agricultural and ecological research because LAI is a measure of plant growth; it directly affects the interception and absorption of light by the canopy, and it influences the heat balance and evaporation from the landscape.

Methodology 1: Measurements

From ground and from space the Leaf Area Index of the vegetation can be obtained using optical methods. While this methods is relatively simple and fast, it does not provide information about the vertical distribution of the leaf area. To obtain this information empirically, the optical sensor must be placed in different levels inside the vegetation stand. Another method is to pick the leafs from the tree and measure the leaf area based on the collected material. There is an obvious drawback on the second approach related to the tree of interest, but it still is an option.

Methodology 2: Analytical Approaches

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